Recent unpublished working papers

(2022), 'Higher Education Expansion and Labour Income Inequality in High-income Countries: A Gender-specific Perspective', Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper 837, LIS Cross-National Data Center, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
The expansion of higher education since the second half of the 20th century was particularly pronounced among women. In most high-income countries to date more women complete a tertiary level than men. But research on the implications of higher education expansion for labour income inequality has largely treated expansion as gender neutral. With this paper we build on prior studies that have ignored potentially differential effects by factoring in what it means for earnings inequality to increase tertiary education among women as compared to men. To this end we draw on harmonised data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) for 27 countries and two time points, 1995 and 2015, and use the method of Recentered Influence Function (RIF) regression. We obtain three main insights from our study. First, no average distributive effect of higher education expansion exists. Second, the distributive effect is gender-specific. The impact on the Gini coefficient of increasing tertiary attainment of men is positive and significant but the impact of increasing tertiary attainment of women is negative and significant. Third, the increasing share of tertiary educational attainment is the main factor explaining that distributive estimates shrink towards zero over time for both women and men. Only for men does larger inequality between and within educational groups significantly contribute to magnify the impact of educational expansion on earnings distributions across countries. Our analysis highlights that taking the gender dimension into account is crucial to obtain exhaustive understanding of the role of education for overall income inequality.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-771,
	Author = {Sauer, Petra and Van Kerm, Philippe and Checchi, Daniele},
	Title = {Higher Education Expansion and Labour Income Inequality in High-income Countries: A Gender-specific Perspective},
	Series = {Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper},
	Number = {837},
	Institution = {LIS Cross-National Data Center},
	Address = {Luxembourg},
	Month = {May},
	Year = {2022}
}
(2022), 'Measuring Poverty Persistence', LISER Working Paper 2022-02, Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
This chapter reviews the literature on the measurement of poverty persistence. The review has two parts. We first cover the literature on poverty persistence indicators which develops !principled”, descriptive summary measures. We then review the econometric literature which teases out the determinants of poverty persistence. Finally, we describe the challenges and limitations the literature on poverty persistence face.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-781,
	Author = {Fusco, Alessio and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Measuring Poverty Persistence},
	Series = {LISER Working Paper},
	Number = {2022-02},
	Institution = {Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research},
	Address = {Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg},
	Month = {January},
	Year = {2022}
}
(2019), 'Accounting for the distributional effects of the 2007-2008 crisis and the Economic Adjustment Program in Portugal', LISER Working Paper 2019-05, Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
This paper develops a new method to model the household disposable income distribution and decompose changes in this distribution (or functionals such as inequality measures) over time. It integrates both a micro-econometric and microsimulation approaches, combining a flexible parametric modelling of the distribution of market income with the EUROMOD microsimulation model to simulate the value of taxes and benefits. The method allows for the quantification of the contributions of four main factors to changes in the disposable income distribution between any two years: (i) labour market structure; (ii) returns; (iii) demographic composition; and (iv) tax-benefit system. We apply this new framework to the study of changes in the income distribution in Portugal between 2007 and 2013, accounting for the distributional effects of the 2007-2008 crisis and aftermath policies, in particular the Economic Adjustment Program (EAP). Results show that these effects were substantial and reflected markedly different developments over two periods: 2007-2009, when stimulus packages determined important income gains for the bottom of the distribution and a decrease in income inequality; 2010-2013, when the crisis and austerity measures took a toll on the incomes of Portuguese households, particularly those at the bottom and top of the distribution, leading to an increase in income inequality.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-911,
	Author = {Sologon, Denisa M. and Almeida, Vanda and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Accounting for the distributional effects of the 2007-2008 crisis and the {E}conomic {A}djustment {P}rogram in {P}ortugal},
	Series = {LISER Working Paper},
	Number = {2019-05},
	Institution = {Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research},
	Address = {Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg},
	Month = {April},
	Year = {2019}
}

Journal articles

(2022), 'Public Support for Tax Policies in COVID-19 Times: Evidence from Luxembourg', International Tax and Public Finance, NA(NA), NA-NA.

Abstract:
We study attitudes towards the introduction of hypothetical new taxes to finance the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the agreement of respondents over: a one-time net wealth tax, an inheritance tax, a temporary solidarity income tax, and a temporary increase in VAT. All questions include different and randomly assigned tax attributes (tax rates and exemption amounts). We find a clear divide with relatively high support for new wealth and inheritance taxes on the one hand and a low support for increases in VAT and income taxes on the other hand. While 58% of respondents agree or strongly agree with a one-time tax levied on net worth, only 24% are in favor of a small increase in VAT. Support for any tax is however negatively associated with the size of the tax as measured by the predicted revenues. Our results indicate that a one-time wealth tax could raise substantial revenues and still garner public support.

@ARTICLE{pvk-702,
	Author = {Olivera, Javier and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Public Support for Tax Policies in {COVID-19} Times: Evidence from {L}uxembourg},
	Journal = {International Tax and Public Finance},
	Volume = {NA},
	Number = {NA},
	Pages = {NA-NA},
	Month = {July},
	Year = {2022},
	Note = {}
}
(2022), 'Understanding Twenty Years of Inequality and Poverty Trends in Russia', Review of Income and Wealth, 68(S1), 108-130.

Abstract:
The distribution of income in Russia changed significantly over the past 25 years. This paper examines the factors that have been driving the fall in inequality and poverty over two recent decades in the Russian Federation. Changes in earnings from public and private sectors and pensions have been the main sources of changes in the income distribution between 1994 and 2015. Falling inequality and poverty were the result of a decrease in the dispersion of private sector earnings and an increase in the levels of pensions and public sector earnings. Neither the evolution of socio-demographic characteristics nor the level or structure of employment alone had big impacts.

@ARTICLE{pvk-791,
	Author = {Lisina, Anastasiya and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Understanding Twenty Years of Inequality and Poverty Trends in Russia},
	Journal = {Review of Income and Wealth},
	Volume = {68},
	Number = {S1},
	Pages = {108-130},
	Month = {February},
	Year = {2022}
}
(2022), 'Intergenerational wealth transfers in Great Britain from the Wealth and Assets Survey in comparative perspective', Fiscal Studies, 43(2), 179-199.

Abstract:
Wealth surveys that collect information on intergenerational transfers provide new scope for comparative study of those transfers and their relationship with wealth across rich countries. However, this is problematic in the case of Great Britain, due to specific features of the Wealth and Assets Survey (WAS), the central source of survey-based household wealth data, in particular the extent of missing information in its first wave. This has severely constrained efforts to investigate patterns of wealth transfer in Great Britain in comparative perspective. In this paper, we set out these issues and present ways of dealing with them. On this basis, we then examine the main similarities and differences in patterns of intergenerational transmission of wealth between Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United States. Our findings reveal common features across these countries as well as some important respects in which Great Britain was distinctive, though less of an outlier than the US. About 35 per cent of British households reported receiving an intergenerational wealth transfer at some point, similar to most of the comparator countries but much higher than the US. We conclude by setting out how WAS can be enhanced to address these issues at source, proposals with which the Office for National Statistics is seriously engaged.

@ARTICLE{pvk-831,
	Author = {Nolan, Brian and Palomino, Juan C. and Van Kerm, Philippe and Morelli, Salvatore},
	Title = {Intergenerational wealth transfers in {G}reat {B}ritain from the {W}ealth and {A}ssets {S}urvey in comparative perspective},
	Journal = {Fiscal Studies},
	Volume = {43},
	Number = {2},
	Pages = {179-199},
	Month = {February},
	Year = {2022}
}
(2022), 'Distributional Change: Assessing the Contribution of Household Income Sources', Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 84(1), 158-184.

Abstract:
We develop a decomposition of changes in household income distributions by factor components to quantify the contribution of changes over time in the association between sources of income and changes in their (marginal) distributions. The two components are broken down to isolate the contribution of specific income sources. An application to the change in the distribution of household incomes in Luxembourg between 2004 and 2013 reveals contrasted results: increased association between spouse earnings, public transfers and taxes depressed the income share of poor households while changes in marginal distributions increased incomes in the upper half of the distribution.

@ARTICLE{pvk-631,
	Author = {Kyzyma, Iryna and Fusco, Alessio and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Distributional Change: Assessing the Contribution of Household Income Sources},
	Journal = {Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics},
	Volume = {84},
	Number = {1},
	Pages = {158-184},
	Year = {2022}
}
(2022), 'The wealth (disadvantage) of single-parent households', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, NA(NA), NA-NA.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@ARTICLE{pvk-921,
	Author = {Nolan, Brian and Palomino, Juan C. and Van Kerm, Philippe and Morelli, Salvatore},
	Title = {The wealth (disadvantage) of single-parent households},
	Journal = {Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science},
	Volume = {NA},
	Number = {NA},
	Pages = {NA-NA},
	Year = {2022},
	Note = {}
}
(2021), 'Accounting for differences in income inequality across countries: tax-benefit policy, labour market structure, returns and demographics', Journal of Economic Inequality, 19, 13-43.

Abstract:
This paper presents a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis, it quantifies the role of tax-benefit systems, employment and occupational structures, labour and financial market returns, and demographic composition in accounting for differences in income inequality across countries. Building upon EUROMOD (the European tax-benefit calculator) and its harmonised datasets, the model is portable and can be implemented for cross-country comparisons between any participating country. An application to the UK and Ireland—two countries that have much in common while displaying different levels of inequality—shows that differences in tax-benefit rules between the two countries account for over one third of the observed difference in disposable household income inequality. Demographic differences play negligible roles. The Irish tax-benefit system is more redistributive than UK’s due to a higher tax progressivity and higher average transfer rates. These are largely attributable to policy parameter differences, but also to differences in pre-tax, pre-transfer income distributions.

@ARTICLE{pvk-622,
	Author = {Sologon, Denisa M. and Van Kerm, Philippe and Li, Jinjing and O'Donoghue, Cathal},
	Title = {Accounting for differences in income inequality across countries: tax-benefit policy, labour market structure, returns and demographics},
	Journal = {Journal of Economic Inequality},
	Volume = {19},
	Pages = {13-43},
	Month = {March},
	Year = {2021}
}
(2021), 'Intergenerational wealth transfers and wealth inequality in rich countries: What do we learn from Gini decomposition?', Economics Letters, 199, 10970.

Abstract:
The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper uses data from household wealth surveys for six rich countries – Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the US – to assess the contribution of intergenerational wealth transfers to wealth inequality using decomposition methods for the Gini coefficient. The results show that transfer wealth is consistently a good deal more unequally distributed than non-transfer wealth and total wealth. Transfer wealth accounts for only about one-tenth of overall wealth inequality for the US compared to one-third for Germany and Italy. This mirrors the importance of transfer wealth in total wealth in each country, with differences in inequality in transfer wealth and its correlation with total wealth having only a modest impact. We find that a marginal percentage increase in all transfers reduces total wealth inequality in Britain, Germany and the US, while it would increase total wealth inequality in France, Italy and Spain.

@ARTICLE{pvk-711,
	Author = {Nolan, Brian and Palomino, Juan C. and Van Kerm, Philippe and Morelli, Salvatore},
	Title = {Intergenerational wealth transfers and wealth inequality in rich countries: {W}hat do we learn from {G}ini decomposition?},
	Journal = {Economics Letters},
	Volume = {199},
	Pages = {10970},
	Month = {January},
	Year = {2021}
}
(2021), 'Inheritance, gifts and the accumulation of wealth for low-income households', Journal of European Social Policy, 31(5), 533-548.

Abstract:
Many low-income households in rich countries have very little wealth, but the role of intergenerational wealth transmission in underpinning this deficit is not known. This article seeks to fill that gap by investigating patterns of past wealth transfer receipt for low-income versus other households in seven rich countries and assessing the contribution that these transfers, or their absence, make to current wealth levels. We find that households on low incomes are relatively disadvantaged in terms of intergenerational transfers received in the past, both in terms of the likelihood of having received any and the amounts received by those who do benefit from such transfers. The role that this disadvantage plays in the linkage between current low-income and low wealth is assessed and evidence presented that it is significant. Simulation of a universal wealth transfer scheme or ‘capital endowment’ on reaching adulthood for two countries shows that such a policy could lead to a marked decline in the proportion of low-income adults with negative or no wealth. This and alternative or complementary policy responses to these wealth deficits merit the most serious attention.

@ARTICLE{pvk-761,
	Author = {Morelli, Salvatore and Nolan, Brian and Palomino, Juan C. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Inheritance, gifts and the accumulation of wealth for low-income households},
	Journal = {Journal of European Social Policy},
	Volume = {31},
	Number = {5},
	Pages = {533-548},
	Year = {2021}
}
(2019), 'Minimum Wages and the Gender Gap in Pay: New Evidence from the United Kingdom and Ireland', Review of Income and Wealth, 65(3), 514-539.

Abstract:
Women are disproportionately in low‐paid work compared to men so, in the absence of rationing effects on their employment, they should benefit the most from minimum wage policies. This study examines the change in the gender wage gap around the introduction of minimum wages in Ireland and the United Kingdom (U.K.). Using survey data for the two countries, we develop a decomposition of the change in the gender differences in wage distributions around the date of introduction of minimum wages. We separate out price effects attributed to minimum wages from employment composition effects. A significant reduction of the gender gap at low wages is observed after the introduction of the minimum wage in Ireland, while there is hardly any change in the U.K. Counterfactual simulations show that the difference between countries may be attributed to gender differences in non‐compliance with the minimum wage legislation in the U.K.

@ARTICLE{pvk-414,
	Author = {Bargain, Olivier and Doorley, Karina and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Minimum Wages and the Gender Gap in Pay: {N}ew Evidence from the {U}nited {K}ingdom and {I}reland},
	Journal = {Review of Income and Wealth},
	Volume = {65},
	Number = {3},
	Pages = {514-539},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {2019}
}
(2019), 'Do Children Carry the Weight of Divorce?', Demography, 56(3), 785-811.

Abstract:
Relatively few studies have examined the physical health of children who experience parental separation. The few studies on this topic have largely focused on the United States and have used cross-sectional designs. Our study investigates the relationship between parental separation and children's body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obesity risk using the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Treating parental separation as a process, we analyze variations in children's physical health before and after the date of their parents' separation in order to capture potential anticipation, adaptation, delayed, or cumulative effects. We estimate fixed-effects models to account for the potential correlation between children's physical health and unobserved factors associated with parental separation, such as socioeconomic background and other time-invariant parental characteristics. We find no evidence of statistically significant anticipation effects in the build-up to parental separation or of statistically significant changes in children's physical health immediately after separation. However, our results show that in the longer term, the BMI of children whose parents separate significantly deviates from the BMI of children from intact families. Furthermore, this association is especially strong for separations that occur when children are under age 6.

@ARTICLE{pvk-681,
	Author = {Ozcan, Berkay and Goisis, Alice and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Do Children Carry the Weight of Divorce?},
	Journal = {Demography},
	Volume = {56},
	Number = {3},
	Pages = {785-811},
	Month = {June},
	Year = {2019}
}
(2018), 'Foreign Workers and the Wage Distribution: What Does the Influence Function Reveal?', Econometrics, 6(3), 1-26.

Abstract:
This paper draws upon influence function regression methods to determine where foreign workers stand in the distribution of private sector wages in Luxembourg, and assess whether and how much their wages contribute to wage inequality. This is quantified by measuring the effect that a marginal increase in the proportion of foreign workers—foreign residents or cross-border workers—would have on selected quantiles and measures of inequality. Analysis of the 2006 Structure of Earnings Survey reveals that foreign workers have generally lower wages than natives and therefore tend to haul the overall wage distribution downwards. Yet, their influence on wage inequality reveals small and negative. All impacts are further muted when accounting for human capital and, especially, job characteristics. Not observing any large positive inequality contribution on the Luxembourg labour market is a striking result given the sheer size of the foreign workforce and its polarization at both ends of the skill distribution.

@ARTICLE{pvk-462,
	Author = {Choe, Chung and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Foreign Workers and the Wage Distribution: {W}hat Does the Influence Function Reveal?},
	Journal = {Econometrics},
	Volume = {6},
	Number = {3},
	Pages = {1-26},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {2018}
}
(2018), 'Modelling earnings dynamics and inequality: foreign workers and inequality trends in Luxembourg, 1988--2009', Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series A: Statistics in Society), 181(2), 409-440.

Abstract:
The paper exploits large-scale administrative data to analyse trends in male earnings inequality in Luxembourg during 20 years of rapid economic growth, industrial redevelopment and massive inflow of foreign workers. A detailed error components model is estimated to identify persistent and transitory components of (the trends of) log-earnings variance and to disentangle the contributions to it of native, immigrant and cross-border workers. The model is flexible and allows for a high degree of individual, age, time and cohort heterogeneity. We observe a surprising stability in overall earnings inequality as a result of more complex underlying changes, with marked increases in persistent inequality (except among natives), a growing contribution of foreigners and a decrease in earnings instability (primarily for natives).

@ARTICLE{pvk-502,
	Author = {Sologon, Denisa M. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Modelling earnings dynamics and inequality: foreign workers and inequality trends in {L}uxembourg, 1988--2009},
	Journal = {Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series A: Statistics in Society)},
	Volume = {181},
	Number = {2},
	Pages = {409-440},
	Month = {February},
	Year = {2018}
}
(2018), 'Macroprudential policy and household wealth inequality', Journal of International Money and Finance, 85(C), 262-277.

Abstract:
Macroprudential policies, such as caps on loan-to-value (LTV) ratios, have become part of the policy paradigm in emerging markets and advanced countries alike. Given that housing is the most important asset in household portfolios, relaxing or tightening access to mortgages may affect the distribution of household wealth in the country. In a stylised model we show that the final level of wealth inequality depends on the size of the LTV ratio, housing prices, credit cost and the strength of a bequest motive, and therefore it is not possible to predict an unequivocal effect of LTV ratios on wealth inequality. These trade-offs are illustrated with estimations of `Gini Recentered Influence Function' regressions on household survey data from 12 Euro-zone countries that participated in the first wave of the Household Finance and Consumption Survey. The results show that, among the households with active mortgages, high LTV ratios at the time of acquisition are related to high contributions to wealth inequality today, while house price increases are negatively related to inequality contributions. A proxy for the strength of bequest motives tends to be negatively related with wealth inequality, but credit cost does not show a significant link to the distribution of wealth.

@ARTICLE{pvk-514,
	Author = {Carpantier, Jean-Fran\,cois and Olivera, Javier and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Macroprudential policy and household wealth inequality},
	Journal = {Journal of International Money and Finance},
	Volume = {85},
	Number = {C},
	Pages = {262-277},
	Year = {2018}
}
(2017), 'Measuring and accounting for the deprivation gap of Portuguese immigrants in Luxembourg', Review of Income and Wealth, 63(2), 288-309.

Abstract:
This paper examines the relative well-being of Portuguese immigrants in Luxembourg by looking at indicators of material deprivation. We document material deprivation differences between immigrants and nationals---the `deprivation gap'---and measure the extent to which income differentials (and other sociodemographic differences) explain this gap using a combination of non-parametric methods and a versatile graphical device. We find a large and significant deprivation gap against Portuguese immigrants, whatever the indicator considered. The extent to which the gap is merely a reflection of differences in income, however, depends on what deprivation items are taken into consideration. Income differences almost fully account for material deprivation differences when the latter is measured using the items included in the official EU social indicator of material deprivation. Inclusion of housing condition indicators mitigates this relationship and we then find compelling evidence that the deprivation gap is not entirely accounted for by income differentials.

@ARTICLE{pvk-362,
	Author = {Hildebrand, Vincent A. and Pi Alperin, Maria Noel and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Measuring and accounting for the deprivation gap of {P}ortuguese immigrants in {L}uxembourg},
	Journal = {Review of Income and Wealth},
	Volume = {63},
	Number = {2},
	Pages = {288-309},
	Month = {June},
	Year = {2017}
}
(2016), 'Assessing Individual Income Growth', Economica, 83(332), 679-703.

Abstract:
We develop methods for describing distributions of income growth across individuals and for comparing changes in growth distributions over time. The methods include graphical devices (‘income growth profiles’) and dominance conditions, and also summary indices, together with associated methods of estimation and inference. Taking an explicitly longitudinal perspective, our approach illuminates clearly who are the gainers and the losers, and also provides distributionally-sensitive assessments—ones that allow the income growth for different individuals to be weighted differently. Our empirical application shows that the pattern of income growth in Britain over the period 1992–6 was less pro-poor than that for 1998–2002, and not significantly different from the pattern for 2001–5.

@ARTICLE{pvk-406,
	Author = {Jenkins, Stephen P. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Assessing Individual Income Growth},
	Journal = {Economica},
	Volume = {83},
	Number = {332},
	Pages = {679-703},
	Month = {October},
	Year = {2016}
}
(2016), 'A distribution-sensitive examination of the gender wage gap in Germany', Journal of Economic Inequality, 14(1), 21-40.

Abstract:
This paper provides a new examination of the gender pay gap for Germany based on a family of distribution-sensitive indicators. Wage distributions for men and women do not only differ by a fixed constant; differences are more complex. We show that focusing on the bottom of the wage distribution reveals a larger gender gap. Our distribution-sensitive analysis can also be used to study whether the statistical disadvantage of women in average pay might be ‘offset’ by lower inequality. Over a broad range of plausible preferences over inequality, we show however that ‘inequality-adjusted’ estimates of the gap can be up to three times higher than standard inequality-neutral measures in Eastern Germany and up to fifty percent higher in Western Germany. Using preference parameters elicited from a hypothetical risky investment question in our sample, inequality-adjusted gender gap measures turn out to be close to those upper bounds.

@ARTICLE{pvk-484,
	Author = {Selezneva, Ekaterina and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {A distribution-sensitive examination of the gender wage gap in {G}ermany},
	Journal = {Journal of Economic Inequality},
	Volume = {14},
	Number = {1},
	Pages = {21-40},
	Month = {March},
	Year = {2016}
}
(2016), 'Decomposing quantile wage gaps: a conditional likelihood approach', Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series C: Applied Statistics), 65(4), 507-527.

Abstract:
The paper develops a parametric variant of the Machado–Mata simulation methodology to examine quantile wage differences between groups of workers, with an application to the wage gap between native and foreign workers in Luxembourg. Relying on conditional-likelihood-based ‘parametric quantile regression’ in place of the standard linear quantile regression is parsimonious and cuts computing time drastically with no loss in the accuracy of marginal quantile simulations in our application. We find that the native worker advantage is a concave function of quantile: the advantage is small (possibly negative) for both low and high quantiles, but it is large for the middle half of the quantile range (between the 20th and 70th native wage percentiles).

@ARTICLE{pvk-442,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe and Choe, Chung and Yu, Seunghee},
	Title = {Decomposing quantile wage gaps: a conditional likelihood approach},
	Journal = {Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series C: Applied Statistics)},
	Volume = {65},
	Number = {4},
	Pages = {507-527},
	Month = {August},
	Year = {2016}
}
(2015), 'Wealth Inequality: A Survey', Journal of Economic Surveys, 29(4), 671-710.

Abstract:
We survey the issues involved in comparing wealth distributions and measuring wealth inequality with illustrations from the Eurosystem Household Finance and Consumption Survey.

@ARTICLE{pvk-471,
	Author = {Cowell, Frank A. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Wealth Inequality: A Survey},
	Journal = {Journal of Economic Surveys},
	Volume = {29},
	Number = {4},
	Pages = {671-710},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {2015}
}
(2014), 'The Relationship between EU Indicators of Persistent and Current Poverty', Social Indicators Research, 116(2), 611-638.

Abstract:
The current poverty rate and the persistent poverty rate are both included in the EU's portfolio of primary indicators of social inclusion. We show that there is a near-linear relationship between these two indicators across EU countries drawing on empirical analysis of EU-SILC and ECHP data. Using a prototypical model of poverty dynamics, we explain how the near-linear relationship arises and show how the model can be used to predict persistent poverty rates from current poverty information. In the light of the results, we discuss whether the EU's persistent poverty measure and the design of EU-SILC longitudinal data collection require modification.

@ARTICLE{pvk-355,
	Author = {Jenkins, Stephen P. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {The Relationship between {EU} Indicators of Persistent and Current Poverty},
	Journal = {Social Indicators Research},
	Volume = {116},
	Number = {2},
	Pages = {611-638},
	Month = {April},
	Year = {2014}
}
(2013), 'Generalized measures of wage differentials', Empirical Economics, 45(1), 465-482.

Abstract:
This paper considers measures of wage differentials not solely determined by mean comparisons but summarizing differences across complete wage distributions. The approach builds on considerations of risk or inequality aversion and on standard expected utility concepts. In an application to the gender pay gap in Luxembourg the disadvantage of women persists according to the proposed measures: lower mean wages for women are not compensated by differences in higher moments of wage distributions (e.g., by less dispersion) at least for realistic assumptions about women preferences toward risk and inequality. The paper also illustrates an original empirical model for wage distributions in the presence of covariates and under endogenous labour market participation.

@ARTICLE{pvk-333,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Generalized measures of wage differentials},
	Journal = {Empirical Economics},
	Volume = {45},
	Number = {1},
	Pages = {465-482},
	Month = {August},
	Year = {2013}
}
(2013), 'Inequality, growth and mobility: The intertemporal distribution of income in European countries 2003--2007', Economic Modelling, 35(C), 931-939.

Abstract:
This paper exploits EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions longitudinal data 2003–2007 to describe the intertemporal distribution of income in twenty-six European countries prior to the onset of the Great Recession. We document levels, inequality and progressivity in the distribution of year-on-year income gains and losses and examine the relationship of these with inequality and poverty indicators. New Member States have typically seen individual incomes grow faster than other EU countries. Income gains were disproportionately pro-poor in all countries. We therefore observe regression to the mean both among EU countries and among individuals within countries. However, short-run income mobility does not significantly reduce inequality of time-averaged incomes. Potential issues about cross-country comparability of the data and the short period under consideration call for caution in interpreting our results, however.

@ARTICLE{pvk-382,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe and Pi Alperin, Maria Noel},
	Title = {Inequality, growth and mobility: The intertemporal distribution of income in {E}uropean countries 2003--2007},
	Journal = {Economic Modelling},
	Volume = {35},
	Number = {C},
	Pages = {931-939},
	Year = {2013}
}
(2009), 'Income inequality and self-reported health status: Evidence from the European Community Household Panel survey', Demography, 46(4), 805-825.

Abstract:
We examine the effect of income inequality on individualś self-rated health status in a pooled sample of 11 countries, using longitudinal data from the European Community Household Panel survey. Taking advantage of the longitudinal and cross-national nature of our data, and carefully modeling the self-reported health information, we avoid several of the pitfalls suffered by earlier studies on this topic. We calculate income inequality indices measured at two standard levels of geography (NUTS-0 and NUTS-1) and find consistent evidence that income inequality is negatively related to self-rated health status in the European Union for both men and women, particularly when measured at national level. However, despite its statistical significance, the magnitude of the impact of inequality on health is very small.

@ARTICLE{pvk-13,
	Author = {Hildebrand, Vincent A. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Income inequality and self-reported health status: Evidence from the {E}uropean {C}ommunity {H}ousehold {P}anel survey},
	Journal = {Demography},
	Volume = {46},
	Number = {4},
	Pages = {805-825},
	Month = {November},
	Year = {2009}
}
(2009), 'Income mobility profiles', Economics Letters, 102(2), 93-95.

Abstract:
An `income mobility profile' is a graphical tool to portray income mobility and identify the association between individual movements and initial status which, despite its importance when assessing the social relevance of mobility, is often discounted by aggregate mobility indices.

@ARTICLE{pvk-313,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Income mobility profiles},
	Journal = {Economics Letters},
	Volume = {102},
	Number = {2},
	Pages = {93-95},
	Month = {February},
	Year = {2009}
}
(2008), 'An Integrated Framework For Analysing Income Convergence', The Manchester School, 76(1), 1-20.

Abstract:
We develop an integrated framework for studying income convergence that incorporates traditional measures of beta-convergence and sigma-convergence. These concepts are formally linked by a measure of re-ranking (or leapfrogging). Our proposed measure of beta-convergence allows for nonlinearities in the growth process and explicitly identifies the contribution of faster growth among low-income regions to reductions in overall inequality. To develop our framework we exploit the close links that exist between studies of income convergence and studies that examine the progressivity of the tax system. We illustrate our approach by examining both cross-country and regional income dynamics.

@ARTICLE{pvk-53,
	Author = {O'Neill, Donal and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {An Integrated Framework For Analysing Income Convergence},
	Journal = {The Manchester School},
	Volume = {76},
	Number = {1},
	Pages = {1-20},
	Month = {January},
	Year = {2008}
}
(2006), 'Trends in income inequality, pro-poor income growth and income mobility', Oxford Economic Papers, 58(3), 531-548.

Abstract:
We provide an analytical framework within which changes in income inequality over time are related to the pattern of income growth across the income range and the reshuffling of individuals in the income pecking order. We use the framework first to explain how it was possible both for the poor to have fared badly relatively to the rich in the USA during the 1980s (when income inequality grew substantially), and also for income growth to have been pro-poor. Second, we contrast the US experience with that of Western Germany, where there was a much smaller rise in inequality. This is accounted for by income growth that was more pro-poor than in the USA.

@ARTICLE{pvk-75,
	Author = {Jenkins, Stephen P. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Trends in income inequality, pro-poor income growth and income mobility},
	Journal = {Oxford Economic Papers},
	Volume = {58},
	Number = {3},
	Pages = {531-548},
	Month = {July},
	Year = {2006}
}
(2005), 'Accounting for income distribution trends: A density function decomposition approach', Journal of Economic Inequality, 3, 43-61.

Abstract:
This paper develops methods for decomposing changes in the income distribution using subgroup decompositions of the income density function. Overall changes are related to changes in subgroup shares and changes in subgroup densities, where the latter are broken down further using elementary transformations of individual incomes. These density decompositions are analogous to the widely-used decompositions of inequality indices by population subgroup, except that they summarize multiple features of the income distribution (using graphs), rather than focusing on a specific feature such as dispersion, and are not dependent on the choice of a specific summary index. Nonetheless, since inequality and poverty indices can be expressed as PDF functionals, our density-based methods can also be used to provide numerical decompositions of these. An application of the methods reveals the multi-faceted nature of UK income distribution trends during the 1980s.

@ARTICLE{pvk-44,
	Author = {Jenkins, Stephen P. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Accounting for income distribution trends: A density function decomposition approach},
	Journal = {Journal of Economic Inequality},
	Volume = {3},
	Pages = {43-61},
	Month = {April},
	Year = {2005}
}
(2004), 'What lies behind income mobility? Reranking and distributional change in Belgium, Western Germany and the USA', Economica, 71(281), 223-239.

Abstract:
The paper presents a decomposition of income mobility indices into two basic sources: Mobility induced by a change of the income distribution shape and mobility induced by a re-ordering of individuals in the income pecking order. The decomposition procedure based on counterfactual distributions results in a decomposition that is applicable to a broad class of mobility measures. Application to income `movement' indices with data for Belgium, Western Germany and the USA indicates that reranking has been the major force behind income mobility.

@ARTICLE{pvk-92,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {What lies behind income mobility? {R}eranking and distributional change in {B}elgium, {W}estern {G}ermany and the {USA}},
	Journal = {Economica},
	Volume = {71},
	Number = {281},
	Pages = {223-239},
	Month = {May},
	Year = {2004}
}
(2003), 'On the magnitude of income mobility in Germany', Schmollers Jahrbuch/Journal of Applied Social Science Studies, 1/2003.

Abstract:
This paper documents the magnitude of income mobility in Germany and its distribution across different income positions, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel. The suggested graphical approach makes it straightforward to identify the portions of the distribution that have the largest impact on aggregate `income movement' indices a la Fields and Ok, and hence offers a starting point to help account for income mobility levels. It appears that most of the contribution to mobility is made by the poorest 10% of the initial distribution. Average relative income changes are much lower and generally constant for the rest of the population.

@ARTICLE{pvk-102,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {On the magnitude of income mobility in {G}ermany},
	Journal = {Schmollers Jahrbuch/Journal of Applied Social Science Studies},
	Volume = {1/2003},
	Month = {January},
	Year = {2003}
}
(2002), 'Une perspective longitudinale sur la pauvreté en Belgique', Reflêts et perspectives de la vie économique, 2002/03, 23-36.

Abstract:
Le caractère longitudinal du Panel Study on Belgian Households permet de suivre un échantillon d'individus au cours du temps et de voir si ce sont les mêmes personnes qui se trouvent en situation de pauvreté anné après année ou si au contraire il y a un renouvellement de la population pauvre. Il apparaît qu'il a un renouvellement important dans la pauvreté. Cependant, l'évaluation dépend fortement du niveau de la ligne de pauvreté choisie. Généralement, les groupes identifiés à risque en coupe transversale se révèlent aussi à risque si l'on se focalise sur la persistance dans la pauvreté. Il faut noter que la différenciation entre les groupes à risque se marque plus lorsque l'on élève la ligne de pauvreté. Sans surprise, l'accès au marché du travail se révèle être un déterminant important de la pauvreté et de la persistance dans celle-ci.

@ARTICLE{pvk-291,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Une perspective longitudinale sur la pauvret\'e en {B}elgique},
	Journal = {Refl\êts et perspectives de la vie \économique},
	Volume = {2002/03},
	Pages = {23-36},
	Year = {2002}
}

Book chapters

(2021), 'Design and implementation of the Socio-Economic Impact Survey', in M. Dijst, Socio-Economic Impacts of COVID-19: Collecting the Data, Les Rapports du LISER, Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg, Ch. 3, pp. 17-30.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-721,
	Author = {van Acker, Veronique and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Design and implementation of the Socio-Economic Impact Survey},
	Editor = {Dijst, Martin },
	Booktitle = {Socio-Economic Impacts of {COVID-19}: {C}ollecting the Data},
	Series = {Les Rapports du LISER},
	Publisher = {Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research},
	Address = {Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg},
	Chapter = {3},
	Pages = {17-30},
	Month = {March},
	Year = {2021}
}
(2021), 'Work and living conditions', in Socio-Economic Impacts of COVID-19: Collecting the Data, Les Rapports du LISER, Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg, Ch. 2, pp. 9-16.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-731,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe and Martin, Ludivine},
	Title = {Work and living conditions},
	Booktitle = {Socio-Economic Impacts of {COVID-19}: {C}ollecting the Data},
	Series = {Les Rapports du LISER},
	Publisher = {Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research},
	Address = {Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg},
	Chapter = {2},
	Pages = {9-16},
	Month = {March},
	Year = {2021}
}
(2021), 'Foreign-born households in the income distribution and their contribution to social indicators in European countries', in A.-C. Guio, E. Marlier & B. Nolan, Improving the understanding of poverty and social exclusion in Europe, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, Ch. 5, pp. 87-102.

Abstract:
This chapter provides new evidence about the relative differences in the incomes and living conditions of native- and foreign-born households exploiting EU-SILC data for 2007 and 2018. For the 28 countries with a satisfying coverage of immigrant populations, we document where the foreign-born stand along the distribution of incomes and living conditions and then derive their contribution to seven social indicators. We find that individuals living in foreign-born households have lower incomes and higher levels of poverty and deprivation in all countries examined. No clear improvement in the relative position of foreign-born households is observed between 2007 and 2018. Although there is much heterogeneity in the incomes of foreign-born households, their generally disadvantaged situation implies that, on the whole, they tend to push inequality, poverty and deprivation indicators upwards. This effect persists in many countries, albeit mitigated in magnitude, when we account for the different characteristics of foreign-born compared to natives.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-801,
	Author = {Fusco, Alessio and Sohst, Rhea Ravenna and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Foreign-born households in the income distribution and their contribution to social indicators in {E}uropean countries},
	Editor = {Guio, Anne-Catherine  and Marlier, Eric  and Nolan, Brian },
	Booktitle = {Improving the understanding of poverty and social exclusion in {E}urope},
	Publisher = { Publications Office of the European Union},
	Address = {Luxembourg},
	Chapter = {5},
	Pages = {87-102},
	Year = {2021}
}
(2021), 'Rotation Group Bias in the Estimation of EU Social Indicators', in A.-C. Guio, E. Marlier & B. Nolan, Improving the understanding of poverty and social exclusion in Europe, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, Ch. 17, pp. 295-312.

Abstract:
The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Condition (EU-SILC) instrument relies on a 4-wave rotating panel design. A new population sample is drawn every year and selected respondents are interviewed annually for up to four years. A complete EU-SILC cross-section dataset therefore contains data from samples drawn independently in four different years. This paper applies influence function regressions methods to examine to what extent the rotating panel design of EU-SILC influences the estimates of social indicators such as income poverty rates or income inequality measures, in other words whether a “rotation group bias” is observed. Our analysis of the 2014 EU-SILC cross-sectional data highlights that estimates of income inequality and poverty rates for newer rotation groups are often higher than for older ones. `Fresh' rotation groups exert an influence that is significantly different from other rotation groups in 7 of the 28 countries examined. These impacts remain significant even when accounting for different socio-demographic characteristics of house-holds and main characteristics of the sampling. Not all countries are affected by the bias however. We cannot isolate the source of the bias, but we raise attention to an issue that may affect the reliability of important social indicator estimates.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-811,
	Author = {Fusco, Alessio and Gallo, Giovanni and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Rotation Group Bias in the Estimation of {EU} Social Indicators},
	Editor = {Guio, Anne-Catherine  and Marlier, Eric  and Nolan, Brian },
	Booktitle = {Improving the understanding of poverty and social exclusion in {E}urope},
	Publisher = {Publications Office of the European Union},
	Address = {Luxembourg},
	Chapter = {17},
	Pages = {295-312},
	Year = {2021}
}
(2019), 'Income and Wealth Above the Median: New Measurements and Results for Europe and the United States', in K. Decancq & P. Van Kerm, What Drives Inequality?, Research on Economic Inequality 27, Emerald Publishing Ltd, Bingley, pp. 89-104.

Abstract:
The study of the upper tail of the income and wealth distributions is important to the understanding of economic inequality. By means of the ‘isograph’, a new tool to describe income or wealth distributions, we compare wealth and income and wealth-to-income ratios in 16 European countries and the United States using data for years 2013/2014 from the Eurozone Household Finance and Consumption Survey and the US Survey on Consumer Finances. Focusing on the top half of the distribution, we find that for households in the top income quintile, wealth-to-income ratios generally increase rapidly with income; the association between high wealth and high incomes is highest among the highest percentiles. There is generally a positive relationship between median wealth in the country and the wealth of the top 1%. However, the United States is an outlier where the median wealth is relatively low but the wealth of the top 1% is extremely high.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-751,
	Author = {Chauvel, Louis and Hartung, Anne and Bar-Haim, Eyal and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Income and Wealth Above the Median: New Measurements and Results for {E}urope and the {U}nited {S}tates},
	Editor = {Decancq, Koen  and Van Kerm, Philippe },
	Booktitle = {What Drives Inequality?},
	Series = {Research on Economic Inequality},
	Number = {27},
	Publisher = {Emerald Publishing Ltd},
	Address = {Bingley},
	Pages = {89-104},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {2019}
}
(2018), 'Wealth Inequality', in B. Nolan, Generating Prosperity for Working Families in Affluent Countries, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, Ch. 12, pp. 312-334.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-841,
	Author = {Nolan, Brian and Morelli, Salvatore and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Wealth Inequality},
	Editor = {Nolan, Brian },
	Booktitle = {Generating Prosperity for Working Families in Affluent Countries},
	Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
	Address = {Oxford, UK},
	Chapter = {12},
	Pages = {312-334},
	Month = {October},
	Year = {2018}
}
(2017), 'Wealth, Top Incomes, and Inequality', in K. Hamilton & C. Hepburn, National Wealth: What is Missing, Why it Matters, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, Ch. 8, pp. 175-203.

Abstract:
Although it is heartening to see wealth inequality being taken seriously, key concepts are often muddled, including the distinction between income and wealth, what is included in !wealth!, and facts about wealth distributions. This chapter highlights issues that arise in making ideas and facts about wealth inequality precise, and employs newly-available data to take a fresh look at wealth and wealth inequality in a comparative perspective. The composition of wealth is similar across countries, with housing wealth being the key asset. Wealth is considerably more unequally distributed than income, and it is distinctively so in the United States. Extending definitions to include pension wealth however reduces inequality substantially. Analysis also sheds light on life-cycle patterns and the role of inheritance. Discussion of the joint distributions of income and wealth suggests that interactions between increasing top income shares and the concentration of wealth and income from wealth towards the top is critical.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-693,
	Author = {Cowell, Frank A. and Nolan, Brian and Olivera, Javier and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Wealth, Top Incomes, and Inequality},
	Editor = {Hamilton, Kirk  and Hepburn, Cameron },
	Booktitle = {National Wealth: What is Missing, Why it Matters},
	Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
	Address = {Oxford, UK},
	Chapter = {8},
	Pages = {175-203},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {2017}
}
(2017), 'How does attrition affect estimates of persistent poverty rates? The case of EU-SILC', in A.B. Atkinson, A.-C. Guio & E. Marlier, Monitoring Social Inclusion in Europe, Eurostat, European Commission, Luxembourg, Ch. 22, pp. 402-417.

Abstract:
Among the primary EU indicators of social inclusion is the persistent at risk of poverty rate, defined as the proportion of persons in a country who are at risk of income poverty in the current year and who were at risk of income poverty in at least two of the preceding three years. Evidence about poverty persistence is an important complement to information about poverty prevalence at a point in time. Estimates of persistent at risk of poverty rates are derived from the longitudinal component of EU SILC in which the fortunes of individuals are tracked over four consecutive years, in principle. In practice, not all of the individuals present in the first sample year provide four years of income data: there is attrition and estimates of persistent at risk of poverty measure may therefore not be reliable. Rates of attrition from the four-year EU SILC samples used to calculate persistent poverty rates vary substantially across Member States, and there is also substantial cross-national diversity in the characteristics of individuals lost to follow-up. This paper documents such patterns in detail and provides evidence that application of longitudinal weights does not fully account for the effects of attrition, and that different assumptions about the poverty status of attritors lead to wide bounds for estimates of persistent poverty rates for most Member States.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-522,
	Author = {Jenkins, Stephen P. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {How does attrition affect estimates of persistent poverty rates? {T}he case of {EU-SILC}},
	Editor = {Atkinson, Anthony B. and Guio, Anne-Catherine  and Marlier, Eric },
	Booktitle = {Monitoring Social Inclusion in {E}urope},
	Publisher = {Eurostat, European Commission},
	Address = {Luxembourg},
	Chapter = {22},
	Pages = {402-417},
	Year = {2017}
}
(2015), 'Modeling the Joint Distribution of Income and Wealth', in T. Garner & K. Short, Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility, Research on Economic Inequality 23, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 301-327.

Abstract:
This paper considers a parametric model for the joint distribution of income and wealth. The model is used to analyze income and wealth inequality in five OECD countries using comparable household-level survey data. We focus on the dependence parameter between the two variables and study whether accounting for wealth and income jointly reveals a different pattern of social inequality than the traditional “income only” approach. We find that cross-country variations in the dependence parameter effectively account only for a small fraction of cross-country differences in a bivariate measure of inequality. The index appears primarily driven by differences in inequality in the wealth distribution.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-452,
	Author = {J\äntti, Markus and Sierminska, Eva M. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Modeling the Joint Distribution of Income and Wealth},
	Editor = {Garner, Thesia  and Short, Kathleen },
	Booktitle = {Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility},
	Series = {Research on Economic Inequality},
	Number = {23},
	Publisher = {Emerald Group Publishing Limited},
	Pages = {301-327},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {2015}
}
(2015), 'Les répercussions du chômage sur les revenus en Belgique dans une perspective comparative', in I. Pannecoucke, W. Lahaye, J. Vranken & R. Van Rossem, Pauvreté en Belgique: Annuaire 2015, Academia Press, Gent, Belgium.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-531,
	Author = {Van Lancker, Wim and Marchal, Sarah and Schuerman, Natalie and Van Mechelen, Natascha and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Les r\'epercussions du ch\^omage sur les revenus en {B}elgique dans une perspective comparative},
	Editor = {Pannecoucke, I  and Lahaye, W  and Vranken, Jo  and Van Rossem, R },
	Booktitle = {Pauvret\'e en {B}elgique: Annuaire 2015},
	Publisher = {Academia Press},
	Address = {Gent, Belgium},
	Year = {2015}
}
(2014), 'Luxembourg: Has inequality grown enough to matter?', in B. Nolan, W. Salverda, D. Checchi, I. Marx, A. McKnight, I. Tòth & H. van de Werfhorst, Changing Inequalities and Societal Impacts in Rich Countries: Thirty Countries' Experiences, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, Ch. 19, pp. 437-458.

Abstract:
Luxembourg experienced remarkable economic performance and employment growth since the middle of the 1980s. Based on the development of the financial sector, this growth benefited massively from the contribution of immigrants and cross-border workers to the labour force. High economic growth led to a rapid improvement in the overall living standard of the resident population. During the same period, income inequality increased too, albeit modestly. Even if the country can still be considered a low inequality country by international standards, this trend is a potential source of concern. This chapter analyses the factors that explain the rise in income inequality between 1985 and 2010 and provides a descriptive account of whether this trend has been correlated with a set of social, cultural, and political outcomes. By and large, the positive impact of the improvement of overall living standards seems to have prevailed over the potential detrimental effects of increasing inequality.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-422,
	Author = {Fusco, Alessio and Van Kerm, Philippe and Alieva, Aigul and Bellani, Luna and Etienne-Robert, Fanny and Guio, Anne-Catherine and Kyzyma, Iryna and Leduc, Kristell and Li\'egeois, Philippe and Pi Alperin, Maria Noel and Reinstadler, Anne and Sierminska, Eva M. and Sologon, Denisa M. and Thill, Patrick and Valentova, Marie and Voicu, Bogdan},
	Title = {{L}uxembourg: Has inequality grown enough to matter?},
	Editor = {Nolan, Brian  and Salverda, Wiemer  and Checchi, Daniele  and Marx, Ive  and McKnight, Abigail  and Tòth, Istvan  and van de Werfhorst, Herman },
	Booktitle = {Changing Inequalities and Societal Impacts in Rich Countries: Thirty Countries' Experiences},
	Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
	Address = {Oxford, UK},
	Chapter = {19},
	Pages = {437-458},
	Year = {2014}
}
(2014), 'Les inégalités de salaire', in E. Marlier, J. Brosius, V. Dautel, A. Decoville, F. Durand, P. Gerber & A.-C. Guio, Cohésion sociale et territoriale au Luxembourg, Regards croisés, Peter Lang, Brussels.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-541,
	Author = {Brosius, Jacques and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Les in\'egalit\'es de salaire},
	Editor = {Marlier, Eric  and Brosius, Jacques  and Dautel, Vincent  and Decoville, Antoine  and Durand, Fr\'ed\'eric  and Gerber, Philippe  and Guio, Anne-Catherine },
	Booktitle = {Coh\'esion sociale et territoriale au {L}uxembourg, Regards crois\'es},
	Publisher = {Peter Lang},
	Address = {Brussels},
	Year = {2014}
}
(2013), 'The joint distribution of income and wealth', in J. Gornick & M. Jäntti, Economic Inequality in Cross-National Perspective, Social Inequality Series, Stanford University Press, USA.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-551,
	Author = {J\äntti, Markus and Sierminska, Eva M. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {The joint distribution of income and wealth},
	Editor = {Gornick, Janet  and J\äntti, Markus },
	Booktitle = {Economic Inequality in Cross-National Perspective},
	Series = {Social Inequality Series},
	Publisher = { Stanford University Press},
	Address = {USA},
	Year = {2013}
}
(2009), 'The measurement of economic inequality', in W. Salverda, B. Nolan & T.M. Smeeding, Oxford Handbook on Economic Inequality, Oxford University Press, Ch. 3, pp. 40-67.

Abstract:
This article provides an introduction to methods for the measurement of economic inequality. It reviews the inequality measures that economists have developed, and explains how one might choose between indices or check whether conclusions about inequality difference can be derived without choosing any specific index. It reviews mobility measurement and some fundamental questions about how the distributions of economic interest are defined.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-561,
	Author = {Jenkins, Stephen P. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {The measurement of economic inequality},
	Editor = {Salverda, Wiemer  and Nolan, Brian  and Smeeding, Timothy M.},
	Booktitle = {Oxford Handbook on Economic Inequality},
	Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
	Chapter = {3},
	Pages = {40-67},
	Year = {2009}
}
(2007), 'Extreme incomes and the estimation of poverty and inequality indicators from EU-SILC', in Comparative EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions: Issues and Challenges, Proceedings of the EU-SILC Conference, Helsinki, 6-8 November 2006, Eurostat, European Commission, Luxembourg, pp. 83-94.

Abstract:
Micro-data estimates of welfare indices are known to be sensitive to observations from the tails of the income distribution. It is therefore customary to make adjustments to extreme data before estimating inequality and poverty statistics. This paper systematically evaluates the impact of such adjustments on indicators estimated from the EU-SILC (Community Statistics on Income and Living conditions) which is expected to become the reference source for comparative statistics on income distribution and social exclusion in the EU. Emphasis is put on the robustness of cross-country comparisons to alternative adjustments. Results from a sensitivity analysis considering both simple, classical adjustments and a more sophisticated approach based on modelling parametrically the tails of the income distribution are reported. Reassuringly, ordinal comparisons of countries are found to be robust to variants of data adjustment procedures. However, data adjustments are far from innocuous. Cardinal comparisons of countries reveal sensitive to the treatment of extreme incomes, even for seemingly small adjustments.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-302,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Extreme incomes and the estimation of poverty and inequality indicators from {EU-SILC}},
	Booktitle = {Comparative {EU} Statistics on Income and Living Conditions: Issues and Challenges},
	Series = {Proceedings of the EU-SILC Conference, Helsinki, 6-8 November 2006},
	Publisher = {Eurostat, European Commission},
	Address = {Luxembourg},
	Pages = {83-94},
	Year = {2007}
}
(2006), 'Gender differences in wage growth and promotion in Luxembourg', in B. Mahy, R. Plasman & F. Ryckx, Gender pay differentials: Cross-national evidence from micro-data, Applied Econometrics Association Series, Palgrave MacMillan, pp. 76-95.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-591,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Gender differences in wage growth and promotion in {L}uxembourg},
	Editor = {Mahy, Bernard  and Plasman, Robert  and Ryckx, Fran\,cois },
	Booktitle = {Gender pay differentials: Cross-national evidence from micro-data},
	Series = {Applied Econometrics Association Series},
	Publisher = {Palgrave MacMillan},
	Pages = {76-95},
	Year = {2006}
}
(2004), 'Une évaluation économétrique des flux vers et hors de la pauvreté en Belgique', in R. Doutrelepont, D. Mortelmans & M.-T. Casman, Onze ans de vie en Belgique. Analyses socio-économiques à  partir du Panel Démographie Familiale, Science et société, Academia Press, Gent, Belgium, pp. 251-272.

Abstract:
Cette étude présente une évaluation des flux d'entrée et de sortie de la pauvreté basée sur l'estimation d'un modèle économétrique de transition appliqué aux vagues 3 à 10 du Panel Study on Belgian Households (PSBH). La spécification du modèle prend en compte l'endogénéité potentielle du statut initial. Les estimations révèlent que cette sophistication est nécessaire car un effet de sélection endogène est présent. On observe une grande diversité des risques estimés persistance et d'entrée dans la pauvreté . L'accès à un revenu du travail, le niveau d'éducation et l'âge sont les facteurs qui semblent influencer le plus fortement les risques de d'entée et de sortie de la pauvreté. A l'inverse, le sexe et la nationalité ne semblent pas avoir d'effet propre substantiel. On observe également un effet de dépendance à la pauvreté: la pauvreté aujourd'hui a un effet propre important sur les chances de pauvreté demain.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-62,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Une \'evaluation \'econom\'etrique des flux vers et hors de la pauvret\'e en {B}elgique},
	Editor = {Doutrelepont, Ren\'e  and Mortelmans, Dimitri  and Casman, Marie-Th\'er\`ese },
	Booktitle = {Onze ans de vie en {B}elgique. Analyses socio-\'economiques \`a  partir du {P}anel {D}\'emographie {F}amiliale},
	Series = {Science et soci\'et\'e},
	Publisher = {Academia Press},
	Address = {Gent, Belgium},
	Pages = {251-272},
	Month = {November},
	Year = {2004}
}
(2002), 'Some new evidence on low income turnover in Belgium', in P. Moyes, C. Seidl & A. Shorrocks, Inequalities: Theory, experiments and applications, Journal of Economics supplement issues 9, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, Austria, pp. 341-363.

Abstract:
Although the requisite data are available, information about low income dynamics in Belgium is in short supply. This article presents new evidence based on the first six waves of a nationally representative panel survey: the Panel Study on Belgian Households (PSBH). The basic figures reported suggest that the degree of low income turnover in Belgium is relatively low. However the picture obtained crucially depends on the poverty threshold considered with the turnover being much higher at the very bottom of the income distribution. Re-entry into poverty turns out to be an important risk, even after several years spent out of poverty. More generally, cross-sections of the population seem to provide a fairly good proxy for those ‘persistently’ poor.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-122,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Some new evidence on low income turnover in {B}elgium},
	Editor = {Moyes, Patrick  and Seidl, Christian  and Shorrocks, Anthony },
	Booktitle = {Inequalities: Theory, experiments and applications},
	Series = {Journal of Economics supplement issues},
	Number = {9},
	Publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
	Address = {Vienna, Austria},
	Pages = {341-363},
	Month = {December},
	Year = {2002}
}
(2002), 'Inference on inequality measures: A Monte Carlo experiment', in P. Moyes, C. Seidl & A. Shorrocks, Inequalities: Theory, experiments and applications, Journal of Economics supplement issues 9, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, Austria, pp. 283-306.

Abstract:
Two broad types of method tend to be used to estimate the sampling distribution of inequality measure estimators: analytical asymptotic approximations and resampling-based procedures (e.g. thebootstrap). The present paper attempts to check the coverage performance, in large samples, of a series of standard estimators of both types so as to provide a yardstick to choose among competing alternatives. Two sampling schemes are considered: simple random sampling and clustered sampling. The comparison is made using a Monte Carlo experiment and an application to Belgian data. It turns out that neither basic bootstrap procedures nor asymptotic approximations significantly outperform its competitors. Both yield acceptable estimates (especially in random samples) provided that sampling design is taken into account.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-112,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Inference on inequality measures: A {M}onte {C}arlo experiment},
	Editor = {Moyes, Patrick  and Seidl, Christian  and Shorrocks, Anthony },
	Booktitle = {Inequalities: Theory, experiments and applications},
	Series = {Journal of Economics supplement issues},
	Number = {9},
	Publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
	Address = {Vienna, Austria},
	Pages = {283-306},
	Month = {December},
	Year = {2002}
}
(2000), 'Evolution récente de la dispersion des revenus et de la pauvreté en Belgique. Que nous apprennent les bases de données socio-économiques fédérales?', in B. Jurion & P. Pestieau, Finances publiques, finances privées, Les Editions de l'Université de Liège, Belgium, pp. 59-74.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-212,
	Author = {Gevers, Louis and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Evolution r\'ecente de la dispersion des revenus et de la pauvret\'e en {B}elgique. {Q}ue nous apprennent les bases de donn\'ees socio-\'economiques f\'ed\'erales?},
	Editor = {Jurion, Bernard  and Pestieau, Pierre },
	Booktitle = {Finances publiques, finances priv\'ees},
	Publisher = {Les Editions de l'Universit\'e de Li\`ege},
	Address = {Belgium},
	Pages = {59-74},
	Year = {2000}
}
(1998), 'Une évaluation de la mobilité des revenus en Belgique sur base des trois premières vagues du PSBH', in Portrait socio-économique de la Belgique, Treizième Congrès des Economistes belges de Langue française, Centre Inter-universitaire de Formation Permanente, Charleroi, Belgium, pp. 109-126.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@INCOLLECTION{pvk-231,
	Author = {Hoet-Mulquin, Marie-Eve and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Une \'evaluation de la mobilit\'e des revenus en {B}elgique sur base des trois premi\`eres vagues du {PSBH}},
	Booktitle = {Portrait socio-\'economique de la Belgique, Treizi\`eme Congr\`es des Economistes belges de Langue fran\,caise},
	Publisher = {Centre Inter-universitaire de Formation Permanente},
	Address = {Charleroi, Belgium},
	Pages = {109-126},
	Year = {1998}
}

Software papers

(2014), 'Space-filling location selection', Stata Journal, 14(3), 605-622.

Abstract:
This note describes a Stata implementation of a space-filling location selection algorithm. It optimally selects a subset from an array of locations so that the spatial coverage of the array by the selected subset is optimized according to a geometric criterion. Such an algorithm is useful in site selection problems, but also in various non-parametric estimation procedures, e.g. to select (multivariate) knot locations in spline regression analysis.

@ARTICLE{pvk-432,
	Author = {Bia, Michela and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Space-filling location selection},
	Journal = {Stata Journal},
	Volume = {14},
	Number = {3},
	Pages = {605-622},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {2014}
}
(2012), 'Kernel-smoothed cumulative distribution function estimation with akdensity', Stata Journal, 12(3), 543-548.

Abstract:
In this article, I describe estimation of the kernel-smoothed cumulative distribution function with the user-written package akdensity, with formulas and an example.

@ARTICLE{pvk-491,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Kernel-smoothed cumulative distribution function estimation with akdensity},
	Journal = {Stata Journal},
	Volume = {12},
	Number = {3},
	Pages = {543-548},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {2012}
}
(2007), 'Stata tip 54: Post your results', Stata Journal, 7(4), 587-589.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@ARTICLE{pvk-371,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {{Stata} tip 54: Post your results},
	Journal = {Stata Journal},
	Volume = {7},
	Number = {4},
	Pages = {587-589},
	Month = {December},
	Year = {2007}
}
(2003), 'Adaptive kernel density estimation', Stata Journal, 3(2), 148-156.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@ARTICLE{pvk-151,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Adaptive kernel density estimation},
	Journal = {Stata Journal},
	Volume = {3},
	Number = {2},
	Pages = {148-156},
	Month = {June},
	Year = {2003}
}
(2001), 'Generalized Lorenz curves and related graphs: An update for Stata 7', Stata Journal, 1(1), 107-112.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@ARTICLE{pvk-161,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe and Jenkins, Stephen P.},
	Title = {Generalized {L}orenz curves and related graphs: An update for {S}tata 7},
	Journal = {Stata Journal},
	Volume = {1},
	Number = {1},
	Pages = {107-112},
	Month = {November},
	Year = {2001}
}
(1999), 'Generalized Lorenz curves and related graphs', Stata Technical Bulletin, 48, 25-29.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@ARTICLE{pvk-172,
	Author = {Jenkins, Stephen P. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Generalized {L}orenz curves and related graphs},
	Journal = {Stata Technical Bulletin},
	Volume = {48},
	Pages = {25-29},
	Month = {March},
	Year = {1999}
}
(1999), 'Computing poverty indices', Stata Technical Bulletin, 48, 29-33.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@ARTICLE{pvk-182,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Computing poverty indices},
	Journal = {Stata Technical Bulletin},
	Volume = {48},
	Pages = {29-33},
	Month = {March},
	Year = {1999}
}
(1998), 'Simple and multiple correspondence analysis in Stata', Stata Technical Bulletin, 42, 32-37.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@ARTICLE{pvk-192,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Simple and multiple correspondence analysis in {Stata}},
	Journal = {Stata Technical Bulletin},
	Volume = {42},
	Pages = {32-37},
	Month = {March},
	Year = {1998}
}

Books

(2019), 'What Drives Inequality?', Research on Economic Inequality 27, Emerald Publishing Ltd, Bingley, UK.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@BOOK{pvk-871,
	Author = {Decancq, Koen and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {What Drives Inequality?},
	Series = {Research on Economic Inequality},
	Number = {27},
	Publisher = {Emerald Publishing Ltd},
	Address = {Bingley, UK},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {2019}
}
(2000), 'Exercices de microéconomie (Volume 2)', De Boeck Université, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Abstract:
Deuxième complément à l'excellent ouvrage de Hal Varian Introduction à la microéconomie, ce manuel propose un nouveau choix d'exercices visant à favoriser l'apprentissage de la modélisation microéconomique moderne par les étudiants du premier et du second cycle en économie. L'effort pédagogique des auteurs se manifeste dans la diversité et l'originalité des thèmes abordés et dans le soin apporté à la cohérence de l'ouvrage. Dans ce second tome, les matières couvertes portent, entre autres, sur la théorie des choix intertemporels et en incertitude, le marché des actifs, la théorie des jeux, le bien-être, les externalités et les biens publics ainsi que la théorie de l'information.

@BOOK{pvk-281,
	Author = {Bergstr\"om, Theodore and Varian, Hal},
	Title = {Exercices de micro\'economie (Volume 2)},
	Publisher = {De Boeck Universit\'e},
	Address = {Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium},
	Year = {2000},
	Note = {}
}

Reports

(2022), 'La COVID-19 au Luxembourg: Le gradient social de l'épidémie', Rapport ``Santé pour Tous'' #1, Ministère de la Santé, Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg.

Abstract:
Ce rapport cherche à identifier les disparités liées aux facteurs socioéconomiques et démographiques selon le degré d’exposition de la population aux différents risques liés à la COVID-19 depuis son émergence en mars 2020 au Luxembourg. Il fait partie du projet « Santé pour tous », mis en place en 2020 par le ministère de la Santé pour mieux comprendre les inégalités en matière de santé. his report explores socio-economic and demographic disparities in COVID-19 health impacts in Luxembourg since March 2020. It describes variations in the risk of infections, hospitalizations and death across a number of socio-economic and demographic variables. It also examines variations in vaccination rates. It is part of the !Santé Pour Tous! project initiated by the Ministry of Health to under inequalities in health.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-821,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe and Salagean, Ioana C and Ametepe, Fofo Senyo},
	Title = {La {COVID-19} au {L}uxembourg: Le gradient social de l'\'epid\'emie},
	Series = {Rapport ``Sant\é pour Tous\'\'},
	Number = {#1},
	Institution = {Minist\ère de la Sant\é, Gouvernement du Grand-Duch\é de Luxembourg},
	Month = {February},
	Year = {2022}
}
(2022), 'COVID-19 and Gender Equality in Luxembourg', Report to Ministère de l'Egalité entre les Hommes et les Femmes, Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@UNPUBLISHED{pvk-861,
	Author = {Peluso, Eugenio and Ametepe, Fofo Senyo and Andreoli, Francesco and Genevois, Anne-Sophie and Menta, Giorgia and Salagean, Ioana C and Van Kerm, Philippe and Verheyden, Bertrand},
	Title = {{COVID-19} and Gender Equality in {L}uxembourg},
	Note = {Report to Minist\`ere de l'Egalit\'e entre les Hommes et les Femmes, Gouvernement du Grand-Duch\'e de Luxembourg},
	Month = {March},
	Year = {2022},
	Note = {}
}
(2020), 'The Wealth of Families: The Intergenerational Transmission of Wealth in Britain in Comparative Perspective', Report to the Nuffield Foundation, Institute for New Economic Thinking, Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford.

Abstract:
The distribution of wealth is of major concern for its potential economic, social and political impacts. Wealth transfers between generations give rise to a variety of normative and practical issues with respect to taxation in particular as equity between and within generations looms large in current British debates. This report contributes to those debates by investigating patterns of wealth transmission across generations and the role this plays in wealth accumulation and the generation of wealth inequality in Britain compared with other rich countries. It is the first study to investigate this in depth in a comparative framework bringing together data from the Wealth and Assets Survey with survey data for France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Spain and the US. It is based on retrospective data from surveys carried out before the current health and economic crisis due to COVID-19. That crisis will have deep-seated and long-lasting effects on wealth that are extremely difficult to assess at this point, including on inheritances to be received in the future, but that does not diminish the importance of understanding past patterns of intergenerational wealth transmission.

@UNPUBLISHED{pvk-851,
	Author = {Nolan, Brian and Palomino, Juan C. and Van Kerm, Philippe and Morelli, Salvatore},
	Title = {The Wealth of Families: The Intergenerational Transmission of Wealth in {B}ritain in Comparative Perspective},
	Note = {Report to the Nuffield Foundation, Institute for New Economic Thinking, Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford},
	Month = {August},
	Year = {2020},
	Note = {}
}

Unpublished working papers

(2011), 'Patterns of persistent poverty: evidence from EU-SILC', ISER Working Paper 2011-30, Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex, Colchester, UK.

Abstract:
The persistent at-risk-of-poverty rate is one of the EU's 11 primary indicators of social inclusion but it has received little attention compared to the current at-risk-of-poverty rate. Using the 2008 EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) database, we compare persistent income poverty rates across European nations and examine differences in poverty profiles for subgroups defined by age and sex. We draw attention to similarities between the profiles for persistent at-risk-of-poverty rates and at-risk-of-poverty rates, and are led to question the relevance of the former measure in its current form as a key EU indicator of social progress.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-341,
	Author = {Jenkins, Stephen P. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Patterns of persistent poverty: evidence from {EU-SILC}},
	Series = {ISER Working Paper},
	Number = {2011-30},
	Institution = {Institute for Social and Economic Research},
	Address = {University of Essex, Colchester, UK},
	Month = {November},
	Year = {2011}
}
(2010), 'Body size and wages in Europe: A semi-parametric analysis', CEPS/INSTEAD Working Paper 2010-09, CEPS/INSTEAD, Differdange, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
Evidence of the association between wages and body size –typically measured by the body mass index– appears to be sensitive to estimation methods and samples, and varies across gender and ethnic groups. One factor that may contribute to this sensitivity is the non-linearity of the relationship. This paper analyzes data from the European Community Household Panel survey and uses semi-parametric techniques to avoid functional form assumptions and assess the relevance of standard models. If a linear model for women and a quadratic model for men fit the data relatively well, they are not entirely satisfactory and are statistically rejected in favour of semiparametric models which identify patterns that none of the parametric specifications capture. Furthermore, when we use height and weight in the models directly, rather than equating body size with the body mass index, the semi-parametric models reveal a more complex picture with height having additional effects on wages. We interpret our

@TECHREPORT{pvk-323,
	Author = {Hildebrand, Vincent A. and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Body size and wages in {E}urope: A semi-parametric analysis},
	Series = {CEPS/INSTEAD Working Paper},
	Number = {2010-09},
	Institution = {CEPS/INSTEAD},
	Address = {Differdange, Luxembourg},
	Month = {June},
	Year = {2010}
}
(2007), 'Extreme incomes and the estimation of poverty and inequality indicators from EU-SILC', IRISS Working Paper 2007-01, CEPS/INSTEAD, Differdange, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
Micro-data estimates of welfare indices are known to be sensitive to observations from the tails of the income distribution. It is therefore customary to make adjustments to extreme data before estimating inequality and poverty statistics. This paper systematically evaluates the impact of such adjustments on indicators estimated from the EU-SILC (Community Statistics on Income and Living conditions) which is expected to become the reference source for comparative statistics on income distribution and social exclusion in the EU. Emphasis is put on the robustness of cross-country comparisons to alternative adjustments. Results from a sensitivity analysis considering both simple, classical adjustments and a more sophisticated approach based on modelling parametrically the tails of the income distribution are reported. Reassuringly, ordinal comparisons of countries are found to be robust to variants of data adjustment procedures. However, data adjustments are far from innocuous. Cardinal comparisons of countries reveal sensitive to the treatment of extreme incomes, even for seemingly small adjustments.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-301,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Extreme incomes and the estimation of poverty and inequality indicators from {EU-SILC}},
	Series = {IRISS Working Paper},
	Number = {2007-01},
	Institution = {CEPS/INSTEAD},
	Address = {Differdange, Luxembourg},
	Month = {February},
	Year = {2007}
}
(2003), 'An anatomy of household income volatility in Europe', CHER Working Paper 16, CEPS/INSTEAD, Differdange, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
This paper offers an exploratory analysis of household income volatility in the 1990s in fourteen EU countries and two future member states, namely Hungary and Poland, using simple summary statistics for average income changes as advocated in Fields and Ok (JET 1996, Economica 1999). The evidence is derived from the newly generated data of the Consortium of Household Panels for European Socio-Economic Research (CHER) that contain harmonised data from the European Community Household Panel and from a series of independent panel surveys. Going a step ahead to overcome the obvious restriction of looking only at population averages as Fields and Ok suggest, both the overall distribution of individual income variations, and the variations in levels of income volatility for different starting income levels are also examined. The analysis can be viewed as looking at the primitives of income mobility at the individual level, as opposed to many of the existing analyses that assess, using other more sophisticated concepts, the aggregate outcome (like inequality of long-term income) resulting from these individual income variations.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-81,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {An anatomy of household income volatility in {E}urope},
	Series = {CHER Working Paper},
	Number = {16},
	Institution = {CEPS/INSTEAD},
	Address = {Differdange, Luxembourg},
	Month = {July},
	Year = {2003}
}
(1998), 'Le revenu des Belges: plat pays ou montagne russe?', Cahiers de recherche de la Faculté des Sciences économiques, sociales et de gestion 203, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium.

Abstract:
L'objectif de cette étude est de fournir une première évaluation, essentiellement descriptive, de l'ampleur de la mobilité des revenus en Belgique sur base des trois premières vagues d'enquête du Panel Study on Belgian Households. Nous nous efforçons de caractériser et de quantifier cette mobilité entre 1992 et 1994 et de comparer chaque fois que possible les résultats belges avec la performance d'autres pays.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-131,
	Author = {Hoet-Mulquin, Marie-Eve and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Le revenu des {B}elges: plat pays ou montagne russe?},
	Series = {Cahiers de recherche de la Facult\'e des Sciences \'economiques, sociales et de gestion},
	Number = {203},
	Institution = {University of Namur},
	Address = {Namur, Belgium},
	Month = {April},
	Year = {1998}
}
(1997), 'From `State Domestic Product' to `Real Income' as a way to measure levels of living in India, some tentative adjustments', Cahiers de recherche de la Faculté des Sciences économiques, sociales et de gestion 184, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium.

Abstract:
This paper attempts to provide an answer as to why the level of average per capita consumer expenditure, the asset possession or, more prosaically, the apparent level of living in some Indian states are comparatively higher than in states which have yet a higher level of income as measured by the per capita net State Domestic Product. The robustness of a PCNSDP ranking of the sixteen major Indian states is tested against some adjustments to there statistics in order to reglect the average real income of the populations in a better way.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-141,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {From `{S}tate {D}omestic {P}roduct' to `Real Income' as a way to measure levels of living in {I}ndia, some tentative adjustments},
	Series = {Cahiers de recherche de la Facult\'e des Sciences \'economiques, sociales et de gestion},
	Number = {184},
	Institution = {University of Namur},
	Address = {Namur, Belgium},
	Month = {March},
	Year = {1997}
}

Other documents

(2021), 'Time use, childcare and home schooling', LISER-MEGA Series on Gender Dimensions of the COVID-19 Pandemic 2, Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected households around the globe in many dimensions. Governments' responses to the public health crisis have almost brought economies to a halt and unemployment rates have jumped to historical highs. Work conditions for those who remained employed changed abruptly, with many being forced to work from home. As schools and daycare centres closed, child-care needs soared. Social distancing recommendations and stay-at-home orders made it difficult, if not impossible, for informal care providers, such as grandparents or other family members, to help with child-care responsibilities. So how did parents cope?

@TECHREPORT{pvk-901,
	Author = {Todorovic, Jelena and Van Kerm, Philippe and Peluso, Eugenio},
	Title = {Time use, childcare and home schooling},
	Series = {LISER-MEGA Series on Gender Dimensions of the COVID-19 Pandemic},
	Number = {2},
	Institution = {Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research},
	Address = {Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg},
	Month = {November},
	Year = {2021}
}
(2021), 'Higher Education Expansion and Inequality in Labour Incomes: The Importance of a Gendered Perspective', Inequality Matters 18, LIS Cross-National Data Center, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-881,
	Author = {Sauer, Petra and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Higher Education Expansion and Inequality in Labour Incomes: The Importance of a Gendered Perspective},
	Series = {Inequality Matters},
	Number = {18},
	Institution = {LIS Cross-National Data Center},
	Address = {Luxembourg},
	Month = {June},
	Year = {2021}
}
(2021), 'Unemployment and working hours of women and men during the pandemic', LISER-MEGA Series on Gender Dimensions of the COVID-19 Pandemic 1, Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
This note examines differences in how men and women's employment has been impacted since March 2020, and explains why analysts have coined the term “she-cession” to describe the economic and labour market impacts of the pandemic.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-891,
	Author = {Todorovic, Jelena and Van Kerm, Philippe and Peluso, Eugenio},
	Title = {Unemployment and working hours of women and men during the pandemic},
	Series = {LISER-MEGA Series on Gender Dimensions of the COVID-19 Pandemic},
	Number = {1},
	Institution = {Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research},
	Address = {Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg},
	Month = {August},
	Year = {2021}
}
(2020), 'The intergenerational transmission of wealth in rich countries', VoxEU 19 September 2020, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-741,
	Author = {Nolan, Brian and Palomino, Juan C. and Van Kerm, Philippe and Morelli, Salvatore},
	Title = {The intergenerational transmission of wealth in rich countries},
	Series = {VoxEU},
	Number = {19 September 2020},
	Institution = { Centre for Economic Policy Research},
	Address = {London, United Kingdom},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {2020}
}
(2014), 'Book Review of Book Review of The Great Recession and the Distribution of Household Income', Journal of Economic Inequality, 12(4), 597-600.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@ARTICLE{pvk-391,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Book Review of Book Review of The {G}reat {R}ecession and the Distribution of Household Income},
	Journal = {Journal of Economic Inequality},
	Volume = {12},
	Number = {4},
	Pages = {597-600},
	Month = {December},
	Year = {2014}
}
(2008), 'La progression du niveau de vie entre 2003 et 2006', Vivre au Luxembourg -- Chroniques de l'enquête PSELL-3 48, CEPS/INSTEAD, Differdange, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-571,
	Author = {Fusco, Alessio and Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {La progression du niveau de vie entre 2003 et 2006},
	Series = {Vivre au Luxembourg -- Chroniques de l'enqu\^ete PSELL-3},
	Number = {48},
	Institution = {CEPS/INSTEAD},
	Address = {Differdange, Luxembourg},
	Year = {2008}
}
(2007), 'Difficile de joindre les deux bouts? La satisfaction des ménages luxembourgeois quant à leur situation financière', Vivre au Luxembourg -- Chroniques de l'enquête PSELL-3 36, CEPS/INSTEAD, Differdange, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-581,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe and Villeret, Anne},
	Title = {Difficile de joindre les deux bouts? {L}a satisfaction des m\'enages luxembourgeois quant \`a leur situation financi\`ere},
	Series = {Vivre au Luxembourg -- Chroniques de l'enqu\^ete PSELL-3},
	Number = {36},
	Institution = {CEPS/INSTEAD},
	Address = {Differdange, Luxembourg},
	Year = {2007}
}
(2005), 'Qui se ressemble s'assemble?', Vivre au Luxembourg -- Chroniques de l'enquête PSELL-3 10, CEPS/INSTEAD, Differdange, Luxembourg.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@TECHREPORT{pvk-601,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Qui se ressemble s'assemble?},
	Series = {Vivre au Luxembourg -- Chroniques de l'enqu\^ete PSELL-3},
	Number = {10},
	Institution = {CEPS/INSTEAD},
	Address = {Differdange, Luxembourg},
	Year = {2005}
}
(2001), 'Essays on income mobility and income distribution dynamics', Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@PHDTHESIS{pvk-241,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Essays on income mobility and income distribution dynamics},
	School = {University of Namur},
	Address = {Namur, Belgium},
	Month = {October},
	Year = {2001}
}
(1996), 'Levels of Living in India Revisited, the Case of Kerala', M.A. Thesis, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium.

Abstract:
No abstract available.

@MASTERTHESIS{pvk-251,
	Author = {Van Kerm, Philippe},
	Title = {Levels of Living in {I}ndia Revisited, the Case of {K}erala},
	School = {University of Namur},
	Address = {Namur, Belgium},
	Month = {September},
	Year = {1996}
}